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Indus Sites at a glance

Indus Sites at a glance

Indus Sites at a glance

Indus Sites at a glance

  • The most accepted period–2500 BC-1750 BC (by Carbon-14 dating).
  • John Marshall was the first scholar to use the term ‘Indus Valley Civilisation’.
  • The Indus Valley Civilisation belongs to Protohistoric Period (Chalcolithic Age/BronzeAge).

1. Harappa

  • Discovered by Daya Ram Sahni in 1921.
  • Situated on the bank of Ravi River.
  • Located in Montgomery, Pakistan, Punjab.

Archaeological Findings 

    • Gateway city
    • fortified wall
    • workmen’s quarter
    • copper chariot with canopy
    • R-37cemetry vanity case
    • seven layers showing preHarappan to late Harappan stage
    • two statues (red stone torso and a dancer)
    • copper specimen of bullock cart

2. Mohenjodaro

  • Discovered by R.D. Banerjee in 1922.
  • Situated on the bank of Indus River.
  • Located in Larkana, Sindh Province.
  • Meaning of the word “Mohenjodaro” – ‘Mound of the dead’

Archaeological Findings 

    • Well known for the Great Bath
    • Great Granary,
    • Collegiate Building
    • Assembly Hall
    • A steatite male head with flowing hair, long-bearded
    • bronze dancing girl and complex toys.

3. Kalibangan

  • Situated on the bank of Ghaggar River.
  • Located in Hanumangarh, Rajasthan.
  • It is also identified as being established in the triangle of land at the confluence of Drishadvati and Sarasvati Rivers.

Archaeological Findings 

    • a grave in east-west direction
    • discovery of a plough field
    • no drainage system was found
    • wall bifurcating citadel
    • fire altars

4. Koti-Diji

  • Discovered by Fazal Ahmed in 1953.
  • Situated on the bank of Indus River.
  • Located in Khairpur, Sindh Province.

Archaeological Findings 

    • Defensive wall
    • wheel-turned pottery
    • Blade industry and houses of stone.

5. Chanhu-Daro

  • Discovered by M.G. Majumdar in 1931.
  • Situated on the bank of Indus River.
  • Located in Sindh, Pakistan.

Archaeological Findings 

    • Brick or Stone fortification
    • curved bricks for bath tubs
    • water tanks
    • intersecting circles painted on jars
    • toys like decorated carts with humped oxen
    • bronze shafthole axe.

6. Ropar

  • Discovered by Y.D. Sharma in 1953.
  • Situated on the bank of Sutlej River.
  • Located in Rupnagar, Punjab.

Archaeological Findings 

    • Ware with and without slip
    • black and red ware and ochre-coloured ware
    • spouted vessels and copper objects.

7. Banwali

  • Discovered by R.S. Bisht in 1974.
  • Situated on the bank of Ghaggar River.
  • Located in Hisar, Haryana.

Archaeological Findings 

    • Pre-Harappan and Harappan sites
    • remains of streets and drains
    • traces of barley.

8. Alamgirpur

  • Discovered by Y.D. Sharma in 1974.
  • Situated on the bank of Hindon River.
  • Located in Meerut, Uttar Pradesh.
  • Eastern most Indus Site.

Archaeological Findings 

    • Pottery
    • black ware, red ware
    • plant fossils
    • animal bone and copper tools.

9. Suktagendor

  • Discovered by R.L. Stein in 1927.
  • Situated on the bank of Dasht River.
  • Located in Makran, Balochistan.

Archaeological Findings 

    • Trade point between Harappa and Babylon
    • western-most site.

10. Lothal

  • Discovered by S.R. Rao in 1957.
  • Situated on the bank of Bhogava River.
  • Located in Ahmedabad, Gujarat.
  • Meaning of the word “Lothal” – ‘Mound of the dead’

Archaeological Findings 

    • A coastal site
    • dockyard built with brick
    • discovery of dyeing-vats
    • Large cemetery
    • Rice grain funnel
    • Evidence of cotton
    • Bead factory
    • pottery with the painting of ‘clever fox’
    • trace of rice cultivation.

11. Surkotada

  • Discovered by J.P. Joshi in 1964.
  • Located in Rann of Kutch, Gujarat.

Archaeological Findings 

    • elaborate fortification
    • shipping complex
    • large stone-age jar with a short inscription
    • bead industry
    • antimony rod
    • remains of horses.

12. Rangpur

  • Discovered by R.S. Bisht in 1931.
  • Situated on the bank of Bhadar River.
  • Located in Ahmedabad, Gujarat.

Archaeological Findings 

    • Surrounded by a fort
    • local Rangpur Pottery (red ware, lustrous red ware)
    • plant remains (rice, millets and possibly bajra)
    • copper rod.

13. Dholavira

  • Discovered by M.S. Vats and B.B. Lal around 1985–90.
  • Located in Rann of Kutch, Gujarat.

Archaeological Findings 

    • Several cultural stages
    • three parts of city
    • unique water management
    • first evidence of stone architecture
    • largest Harappan inscription
    • use of fire-altars.

What do you think?

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