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Major Indus Valley Sites and Archaeological Discoveries

Sites of Indus Valley Civilization

Major Indus Valley Sites and Archaeological Discoveries
Major Indus Valley Sites and Archaeological Discoveries

Major Indus Valley Sites and Archaeological Discoveries

The Indus Valley Civilization was extended over Sind, Baluchistan, Afganistan, West Punjab, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Rajasthan, Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab and Maharashtra.

So far more than 1000 Indus Valley Civilization sites have been discovered. In this post we will discuss some major sites of Indus Valley Civilization and famous Archaeological Discoveries of them .

Harappa

Place : Pakistan (Punjab)

On the Bank of River : Ravi

Excavator : Dayaram Sahini (1921)

Important Discoveries and Speciality :

  • Two rows of six granaries, Granary outside the fort.
  • Evidence of coffin burial ((Only founded in Harrapa) and cemetery ‘H’ and & R37 culture
  • Single room barracks
  • Two red stone idols of a dancing girl and naked bust of male, female genitalia.
  • Evidence of direct trade Interaction with Mesopotamia.
  • Postcremation burials more numerous.
  • Copper Bullock cart
  • Cubical Limestone Weight
  • Terracotta Figurines.

Mohenjo-Daro

Place : Larkana District Of Sind

On the Bank of River : Indus

Excavator : R. D. Banerji (1922)

Meaning of the Word “Mohenjo-Daro ” is “Mound of the dead”

Important Discoveries and Speciality :

  • Multi – pillared assembly Hall
  • Great Bath
  • College of Priests.
  • Large granary
  • Piece of woven cotton cloth
  • Superficial evidence of Horse
  • Bronze dancing girl
  • Violent death of some inhabitants (discovery of human skeletons together)
  • Seal representing Mother Goddess, Pashupati, bearded man and a woman to be sacrified
  • Unicorn Seals (Most numbers of it in here)
  • Evidence of ship/big boat
  • Bangles of clay
  • Bronze buffalo

Lothal

Place : Gujarat (Ahmedabad District, at the head of the Gulf of Cambay)

On the Bank of River : Bhogava and Sabarmati river confluence

Excavator : S.R. Rao (1957)

Meaning of the Word “Lothal ” is also “Mound of the dead”

Important Discoveries and Speciality :

  • Dockyard
  • First manmade port
  • Important sea trade Centre and bead-making factory
  • Town not divided into two sectors
  • City divided into six sectors and each section was built on a wide platform of unique brick
  • Remains of rice husks
  • Houses with entrances on the main street (houses of all other sites had side entries)
  • Painting on a jar resembling the story of the cunning fox in Panchatantra
  • Evidence of double burial (male and female together).
  • Brick-built tank-like structure
  • Seal from Mesopotamia
  • Ivory weight balance
  • Terracota model of ship
  • The lower part of the city is walled
  • Fire altars
  • Copper dog
  • Chess-playing

Kalibangan

Place : Rajasthan (Ganganagar)

On the Bank of River : Ghaggar

Excavator : Amlanand Ghosh (1953), Dr. B. B. Lal and B. K. Thapar (1961)

Meaning of the Word ” Kalibangan ” is “Black Bangles”

Important Discoveries and Speciality :

  • Ploughed field
  • Fire altars showing practice of cult of sacrifice
  • Remains of massive brick wall around both citadel and lower town
  • Evidence of earthquake
  • Bones of camel
  • Not as well planned and organised as MohenjoDaro, did not even have a drainage system
  • Burials in circular and rectangular grave
  • Provides evidence of preHarappan civilisation at lower layer of excavation and mature Harappan at upper layer of excavation
  • Decorative bricks used in flooring only at this site

Chanhu-Daro

Place : Pakistan (Sindh), near MohenjoDaro

On the Bank of River : Indus

Excavator : N.G. Mazumdar (1931) and E. Makay

Important Discoveries and Speciality :

  • Remains of both pre-Harappan and Mature Harappan culture.
  • Bangle Factory
  • InkPot
  • Bead makers shop
  • Only Harappan city without a citadel
  • Evidence of Human sacrifice
  • Clay model of fourwheeler Bronze model of roofed chariot
  • The footprint of a dog chasing a cat

Dholavira

Place : Gujarat in Rann of Kutchchh

On the Bank of River : –

Excavator : R S Bisht (1985 )

Important Discoveries and Speciality :

  • Giant water reservoir
  • Stadium
  • Unique water harvesting System.
  • An Inscription comprising ten large sized signs of the Harappan script similar to a signboard.
  • Only site to be divided into three parts
  • Large-scale use of sandstone along with mud brick.
  • Rock – Cut architecture

Rangpur

Place : Gujarat

On the Bank of River : Madar River

Excavator : M.S. Vatsa ( 1931), S.R. Rao (1953-54)

Important Discoveries and Speciality :

  • Evidence of Rice.
  • Flakes
  • Yellow and grey color pots of pre-Harappan people.

Banawali

Place : Fatehabad district of Haryana

On the Bank of River : Rangoi

Excavator : R.S. Bist (1973–74)

Important Discoveries and Speciality :

  • Oval shaped settlement.
  • The only city with radial streets.
  • Toy plough.
  • The largest number of barley grains.

Alamgirpur

Place : Meerut (UP)

On the Bank of River : Rangoi

Excavator : Y.D. Sharma (1958)

Important Discoveries and Speciality :

  • Alamgirpur is the eastern most Harappan Site.
  • Impression of cloth on a trough.
  • Pottery and beads

Koti-Diji

Place : Sindh (Pakistan)

On the Bank of River : Sindh

Excavator : Sindh Ghurey (1835), Fazal Ahmed (1955)

Important Discoveries and Speciality :

  • This City was destroyed by force

Suktagendor

Place : Sindh (Pakistan), Baluchistan

On the Bank of River : Dasht/Dashak River

Excavator : A Stein, George Dales

Important Discoveries and Speciality :

  • Ash filledpot, copper axe, earthen bangles & pottery
  • Flint Blades
  • Stone Vessels
  • Stone Arrowheads
  • Shell Beads
  • Originally a port but later cut off from sea due to coastal uplift
  • Had trade links with Babylon.

Surkotada

Place : Gujarat (Bhuj)

On the Bank of River : –

Excavator : J.P. Joshi (1964)

Important Discoveries and Speciality :

  • Bones of horse
  • Graveyard
  • Stone Covered Beads

Amri

Place : Sindh (Pakistan)

On the Bank of River : Sindh

Excavator : Ghurey (1835) Fazal Ahmed (1955)

Important Discoveries and Speciality :

  • Actual remains of rhinoceros
  • Transitional culture between pre and post Harappan culture
  • Trace of jhangar culture

Ropar

Place : Punjab (India)

On the Bank of River : Sutlej

Excavator : Y.D. Sharma (1955–56)

Important Discoveries and Speciality :

  • Cemetery
  • Seal
  • Earthen pot
  • Buildings mainly of stone and soil.
  • Evidence of burying dog below human, Oval pit burials.

What do you think?

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